Goats to Japan

I’ve been having great fun the past three weeks rummaging through boxes of Dan West’s correspondence at the Brethren Historical Library and Archives in Elgin, Illinois. Dan is the founder of Heifer International and was very active with the organization, serving as volunteer secretary of the Heifer Project Committee for many years. I’m finding a wealth of information that will help me flesh out a book I’m working on about the first decade of the Heifer Project. As I process the material I’m gathering, I’ll share snippets with you here. Like the following story that brought a smile to my face when I read it.

The year was 1949. The Heifer Project Committee had been making shipments of goats to Japan for over a year through the efforts of their representatives on the West Coast. Southern California rep David Norcross had sent a postcard to Dan West with this picture on it.

Courtesy of Brethren Historical Library and Archives.

Dan wrote back to him, “Can you give me the story of the W.C.T.U. goats?” Here it is:

     The two goats on the enclosed card traveled all the way from America to Tokyo last year. This in itself is not so very unusual for a goat, since over 2,000 goats were sent to Japan and Okinawa during 1948. However, these two goats are unusual in that they were given names before they left the boat, and those names have stuck with them.

The story has its beginning when Mrs. Amy C. Weech, honorary president of the Virginia W.C.T.U. [Women’s Christian Temperance League] office in Washington, D.C., sent $100 to New Windsor, asking that two goats be sent to the credit of her organization and be named “Temperance” and “Teetotaller.” The Southern California-Arizona branch of Heifers for Relief went out of their way to put tags on the chain with the number tag, and these names inscribed. The tags were given to the supervisor who, before reaching their destination picked out two good white does and fastened these tags on their chains.

     It so happened that the number of goats was increased, as “Temperance” brought forth her first-born kid two or three days before the boat landed at Yokohama. The new little kid was given the name of “Purity.” Arrangements were made for the goats to go into the W.C.T.U. Rescue Home for Girls in Tokyo, where they were admired and were very welcome. Now they are furnishing milk for the girls at this home.

Watch for more of these snippets next year as Heifer International celebrates their 75th anniversary.

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Waste not? or Want not?

Captains and/or seagoing cowboy supervisors had a decision to make: what to do with all that manure their four-legged charges produced! Do we not waste it? Or do we not want it? If a Captain was altruistic, he might let the manure accumulate on the voyage and be offloaded at the destination for use as fertilizer. Many a cowboy with such a Captain said that by the time they reached their destination, the back ends of their animals were higher than their front ends.

Manure offloaded from the S. S. Bucknell Victory in Nowy Port, Poland, February 1946. Rich cargo for the Polish farmers. Photo: Harold Thut.

If the Captain liked his vessel “shipshape,” however, he may give the order to “Keep those stalls clean!” – in whatever way the cowboys could manage.

Cowboys Guhr and Brenneman pull up manure on the S. S. John J. Crittenden, November 1945. Photo: Ernest Bachman.

Luke Bomberger pitches manure overboard en route to China on the S. S. Boulder Victory, February 1947. Photo: Eugene Souder.

The very first UNRRA livestock trip, on the S. S. F. J. Luckenbach, was one on which the cowboys cleaned their stalls. College students Gordon Bucher and Ken Frantz worked on the top deck. They recalled an incident when they had thrown manure over the rail just as an older cowboy (whom I will not name) had stuck his head out a porthole right below. The joke of the trip became, “My name is (unnamed cowboy). What did YOU see when you looked out the porthole?”

Manure overboard! It didn’t all make it to Poland. Bucknell Victory, February 1946. Photo: Harold Thut.

Seagoing cowboy Ernest Williams, who in 1954 accompanied the 36th load of heifers sent to Germany for the Heifer Project, relates this story:

We tended the cattle twice a day, a pretty easy job. After a couple of days out, we made an effort to clean out the cages, which was considerable work in itself. Our method was to take the steel tubs used to wash clothes, which were about two to two-and-a-half feet in diameter with handles. We put as much weight in each one as we could handle and two of us would carry the tub and throw the waste overboard. We could see brown patches on the ocean behind the ship on both sides, dotting the trail of the ship. BIG MISTAKE. The trip was two weeks over. When we got to Europe, they said, “Where is the manure?” It was considered important fertilizer for the fields. We saw the “honey wagons” there hauling manure. We had wasted ours feeding the fish.

The ship used for Williams’ trip was not one of the regular livestock carriers that went to Germany, so the Captain would not have known the waste was expected along with the animals.

Seagoing Cowboy Floyd Schmoe remembered in Japanese documentary

I’m always interested to see what seagoing cowboys went on to do in their lives after their livestock delivery journeys. For many of the younger cowboys, the experience was a formative one. Especially during the UNRRA years of 1945-1947. After UNRRA disbanded, however, and the Heifer Project was on its own, the cowboys, now volunteers without pay, often used these trips as passage to Europe or elsewhere for further service work of some sort. One such cowboy was 52-year-old Floyd Schmoe.

Floyd Schmoe caring for goats aboard the S. S. Contest on his way to Japan in July 1948. Photo courtesy of Judy Rudolph, granddaughter of Floyd Schmoe.

Raised in a Quaker home on the Kansas prairies, Schmoe became a lifelong peace activist. As a young man, he studied forestry, but his studies were interrupted by World War I during which he built prefab homes for war refugees in France through the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC). After returning home, he married Ruth Pickering and resumed his forestry studies. He spent the next two decades focused on natural history education in Washington State, serving as the first park naturalist for Mount Rainier National Park and then the first director of the Puget Sound Academy of Science.

With the outbreak of World War II, Floyd’s passion for peace and justice led him in new directions. Concerned for the welfare of Japanese Americans who were being forcibly interned, he tirelessly worked full time on their behalf through AFSC and his own efforts. After the war, appalled by the atomic bombings in Japan, Floyd set out to start a project of building homes in Hiroshima for bomb survivors. In the meantime, the Heifer Project had begun shipments of bulls, and then goats, to Japan. So Floyd took the opportunity to travel to Japan on the S. S. Contest with 227 goats and three other seagoing cowboys in July 1948.

Floyd Schmoe milking a goat on board the S. S. Contest, July 1948. Photo courtesy of Judy Rudolph.

Floyd stayed on in Japan to make contacts for setting up a volunteer home-building work camp the next year. Over the next four years, Floyd’s project “Houses for Hiroshima” built dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that provided homes for nearly 100 families.

Japan Public Television’s NHK World has created a documentary about Floyd Schmoe and his work in Japan. The English version will air here today August 10 at 18:10 (PST) and tomorrow August 11 at 00:10, 06:10 and 12:10 (PST). To find your local time for the airing, go to this website and scroll down to the NHK World Prime program. The documentary will continue to be available for an additional two weeks beginning August 13 at this site. A shorter 9-minute news clip of the documentary is available here.

You can also read an essay about Floyd Schmoe’s life here.

Floyd Schmoe lived to be 105, leaving a long legacy of service for a just and peaceful world.

With thanks and appreciation for this story to my contact at NHK World, Jun Yotsumoto.

Sharing the seagoing cowboy and Heifer Project history at Heifer Ranch in Arkansas

This post will be more personal than my normal posts. My husband Rex and I are currently nearing the end of a two-month stay at the Heifer Ranch in Perryville, Arkansas, where I’ve been sequestering myself to work on my book-in-progress about the first decade of the Heifer Project (today’s Heifer International) while Rex has been volunteering in the maintenance department. Quite by coincidence, and fortunately for me, the Heifer International Board of Directors and the Heifer Foundation Board held their meetings at the Ranch this week. The Heifer Board invited me to sit in on Monday, and I am filled with admiration for the incredible talent of Board members and staff alike, appreciation for the work that Heifer is doing both here and abroad, and anticipation of the wonderful things to come.

A highlight of the meeting for me was hearing Senior Vice President of Marketing Christy Moore tell of the marketing team’s visit to Honduras to see for themselves the impact of Heifer’s work there. Today, Heifer is so much more than just giving an animal to recipients, as it was in the beginning. It’s about building sustainable communities, achieving living incomes for community members through their small farms. At the dairy plant the team visited, Heifer has assisted a small business on the verge of closing by providing the owners with help in how to market the cheese they were making, teaching them good manufacturing practices, and providing capital for needed equipment. Heifer’s signature “Passing on the Gift®” value is achieved when the owners are able to pass on the knowledge of hygienic dairy practices to their small farm suppliers. The business has become so successful that families who had migrated to the United States for work are able to move back home because there are jobs for them there now, from the supply end to the marketing end of the cheese business.

Heifer International mission statement guides the Board’s deliberations.

In front of every Board member during the meetings, on the back of their name card, was Heifer’s mission statement. Another highlight for me was hearing of Heifer’s plans to expand their efforts in working at the last part of that statement: taking care of the earth. They already teach the sustainable methods of agriculture to small holder farmers in areas being affected by climate change, methods that help to reclaim, replenish, and protect the soil and water sources. The next step will be to partner with green investors to be able to expand this work to a scale that will help cool the planet.

Heifer President and CEO Pierre Ferrari (on right) addresses environmental impact issues of Heifer’s work. Photo credit: Peggy Reiff MIller.

The third highlight for me was to hear the Board begin their planning for a major global celebration of the organization’s 75th anniversary next year. It seems like only yesterday that we were celebrating the 70th! I’m looking forward to seeing what the planning committee comes up with this time around and to participating in whatever ways I’m asked and able.

Heifer’s Senior Vice President of Marketing Christy Moore (second from right) introduces the 75th Anniversary agenda item. Photo credit: Peggy Reiff Miller.

Together again with “Sister” Jan. Photo credit: Jessica Ford.

The culminating highlight of the day for me was to share the evening stage with Heifer founder Dan West’s daughter in what was billed on the Board’s agenda as “An Evening with Jan Schrock and Peggy Miller,” or as Jan likes to call it, “The Jan and Peggy Show.” This is the fourth time we have presented together, with Jan sharing stories about her father and how he became Heifer’s founder and me sharing the history of Heifer’s beginnings, including stories of the seagoing cowboys and Heifer’s legacy. A bonus was having longtime Heifer Executive Director Thurl Metzger’s daughter Kathleen McNamee present to share about her father’s role in purchasing the Heifer Ranch. The Ranch staff created a very festive atmosphere in an outdoor pavilion and served a delicious meal using Ranch-raised meat and produce that set just the right tone for a delightful evening with the Board members, Heifer International’s Leadership Cabinet, and Heifer Ranch/Heifer USA staff and volunteers. A night to be long remembered.

Jan West Schrock tells how her father’s service in World War I set him on a life-long path of working for peace. Photo credit: Peggy Reiff Miller.

It was an honor to share the history of Heifer’s beginnings with the people who carry on its legacy today. Photo credit: Rex Miller.

Next post: A tour of Heifer Ranch with the Heifer Foundation Board.

In Memorium

It’s time for my regular Fifth Friday post to honor the seagoing cowboys who have passed away. These are the ones I’ve learned of, some from previous years of whom I’m just becoming aware:

Anders, Paul Henry, July 16, 2017, Alemeda, CA. S. S. Morgantown Victory to Poland, December 10, 1945.

Armstrong, Byron Harold, July 17, 2017, Bridgewater, VA. Heifer Project trips to Austria, Turkey, Egypt, Sardinia, Mexico, beginning in 1954.

Brenneman, John Henry, October 16, 2017, Newport News, VA. S. S. Bucknell Victory to Poland, February 15, 1946.

Brown, H. Merle, October 12, 2017, Elgin, IL. S. S. Queens Victory to Czechoslovakia, June 9, 1946; S. S. Cedar Rapids Victory to Yugoslavia, July 10, 1946.

Burkholder, Lewis A., December 13, 2013, Powhatan, VA. S. S. Pass Christian Victory to Israel, November 1949 (Levinson Brothers shipment).

Damon, Richard Alva, January 24, 2008, Walnut Creek, CA. S. S. Alcee Fortier to Yugoslavia, April 18, 1946.

Day, Kelly M., April 6, 2013, Lafayette, IN. Heifer Project shipment to Greece, December 10  1956.

Detrra, Jr., Norman E., April 27, 2011, West Reading, PA. S. S. Stephen R. Mallory to Poland, June 20, 1946.

Dickey, John, October 25, 2017, New Castle, IN. S. S. Virginia City Victory to Poland, May 26, 1946; S. S. Yugoslavia Victory to Poland, July 19, 1946.

Eller, Harlan H., January 20, 2017, Crimora, VA. S. S. Earlham Victory to Yugoslavia, January 6, 1947.

Groff, Eugene A., January 5, 2017, Lititz, PA. S. S. Beloit Victory to Poland, November 27, 1946.

Harner, David, July 25, 2015, Chino Valley, AZ.  S. S. Humanitas (Heifer Project) to Italy, March 23, 1948.

Harsh, Norman Luther, November 29, 2017, Salem, VA. S. S. Mexican to Yugoslavia, June 28, 1945.

Hess, Paul C., November 19, 2016, Mount Joy, PA. S. S. Mount Whitney to Poland, November 30, 1946.

Hilty, Calvin Albert, March 29, 2014, Strathmore, CA. S. S. Morgantown Victory to Poland, December 4, 1945.

Hochstetler, Carl, September 13, 2013, Killbuck, OH. S. S. Mexican to Yugoslavia, June 28, 1945.

Kanagy, Paul C., December 20, 2011, Chesterville, OH. S. S. Blue Island Victory to Poland, August 10, 1946.

Kaufman, Paul J., September 18, 2017, Plain City, OH. S. S. Santiago Iglesias to Poland, November 10, 1945; S. S. Gainesville Victory to Poland, April 17, 1946.

Keeney, Paul, November 3, 2017, York, PA. S. S. Pierre Victory to Poland, March 29, 1946.

Kuhns, Levi M., March 6, 2011, N. Lawrence, OH. S. S. Park Victory to Poland, December 23, 1945.

Lehman, Adin Leroy, April 20, 2017, Chambersburg, PA. S. S. Queens Victory to Greece, December 15, 1946.

Long, James DeChant, October 26, 2017, Carmel-by-the-Sea, CA. S. S. Villanova Victory to Greece, July 22, 1946.

Martin, Aldine D., November 17, 2017, Greencastle, PA. S. S. Bucknell Victory to Poland, February 16, 1946.

McFadden, William Robert (Bob), December 8, 2017, Bridgewater, VA. Heifer Project shipment to Germany, May 19, 1953.

Mullet, Henry A., June 3, 2017, Kalona, IA. S. S. Samuel H. Walker to Greece, December 15, 1945.

Nafziger, Robert W., February 8, 2011, Archbold, OH. S. S. Park Victory to Poland, December 23, 1945; S. S. Plymouth Victory  to Greece, February 13, 1947.

Newsom, Robert “Bo”, March 28, 2017, Columbus, IN. S. S. Rockland Victory to Poland, June 15, 1946.

Nolt, Richard B. “Dick”, February 28, 2014, Lititz, PA. S. S. Cyrus W. Fields to Italy, June 14, 1946.

Prouty, Estel, May 21, 2017, Ogden, IA. S. S. Lindenwood Victory to China, December 19, 1946.

Renalds, Robert Stanley, March 1, 2013, Nashville, TN. S. S. John J. Crittenden to Czechoslovakia, August 15, 1946.

Shenk, Joseph Donald “Don”, September 14, 2015, Newport News, VA. S. S. Pass Christian Victory to Israel, December 1949 (Levinson Brothers shipment).

Siemens, Melvin Roy, October 13, 2017, Leoti, KS. S. S. Charles W. Wooster to Greece, April 21, 1946.

Summy, Robert G., May 1, 2017, Manheim, PA. S. S. Virginian to Yugoslavia, June 26, 1945.

Torkelson, Norman, December 9, 2012, Tilley, Alberta, Canada. S. S. Mount Whitney to Poland, July 29, 1946.

Unruh, Earl R., June 6, 2017, Kansas City, MO. S. S. Morgantown Victory to Yugoslavia, December 2, 1946.

Voran, Willis R., January 16, 2017, New Holland, PA. S. S. John J. Crittenden to Yugoslavia, November 23, 1946.

Weber, Norman, October 2, 2016, Elmira, Ontario, Canada. S. S. Occidental Victory to Poland, September 29, 1946.

White, David H., September 27, 2017, Lititz, PA. S. S. John L. McCarley to Poland, July 2, 1946.

Willms, Alfred J., October 22, 2016, Leamington, Ontario, Canada. S. S. Frederic C. Howe to Yugoslavia, November 15, 1946; S. S. Woodstock Victory to Greece, January 18, 1947.

Rest in peace, dear seagoing friends.

 

Heifer Project and Seagoing Cowboy Exhibit returns in Germany

The Heifer Project and the Seagoing Cowboys once again take the stage at the Oberschlesiches Landesmuseum in Ratingen, Germany.

New exhibit. Photo courtesy of Melanie Mehring, Oberschlesiches Landesmuseum.

A piece of the 2016 exhibit is now on display through February 18, 2018, in conjunction with a larger exhibition at the Haus des Deutschen Ostens museum in Munich. Titled “Kann Spuren von Heimat enthalten,” the exhibition focuses on historically traditional German food and drink and its role in the identity and integration of Eastern European Germans as they settled back into Germany after their expulsion from their Eastern European homes at the end of World War II, as well as during the Cold War. The title is a wonderful play on words described to me by museum curator Melanie Mehring, meaning literally, “May contain traces of home.” It references “the typical phrase used on lots of food for people with allergies.” For example, “May contain traces of nuts.”

Photo courtesy of Melanie Mehring, Oberschlesiches Landesmuseum.

If you’re in Germany in the next couple of months, drop in and take a look!

Gratitude from Silesian Heifer Project recipients

During this Thanksgiving weekend, it is fitting to share expressions of gratitude from early recipients of heifers delivered by the seagoing cowboys. This post takes us to war-devastated Czechoslovakian Silesia in 1946 and comes from a bundle of thank you letters sent to the Brethren Service Committee and the Heifer Project.

A December 23, 1946, letter from the Czech Child Welfare Foundation Vojtechov in Brno gives us an overview:
“The cows donated by the Church of the Brethren are rendering excellent service and are helping by their precious product to restore great numbers of our citizens who contracted tuberculosis and other diseases during the war, either in concentration camps, prisons or through deprivations and malnutrition. Your assistance shall never be forgotten. Thousands and thousands of people are helped by your gifts and are sincerely grateful to you.”

Frank Vojkuvka: “I didn’t have any milk for the children and the entire family suffered from under nourishment. Heartiest thanks for the donated cow.” Photo courtesy of Heifer International.

From the Evangelical Parish orphanage in Trinec near Tesinsko, June 19, 1946:
“Toward the end of the war our orphanage invaded by the German armada was completely damaged. They left us merely empty iron beds and even those were damaged. Many orphans whose parents were killed in Concentration camps of Germany came to us. . . . We had a big holiday when we brought the cow home. No one could believe that it was given to us free.”

Kosarova Frantiska: Your fine cow means for us and especially for our 2 girls 5-1/2 and 1-1/2 y. so much easing our food supply. Since we have enough milk again we are all healthier.” Photo courtesy of Heifer International.

From Elizabeth Moravcova, Bolatice, June 20, 1046:
“My house was so damaged by bombing that it couldn’t be lived in. It was shot at by artillery from three sides. And you can imagine the crumbling and shattering caused by explosions in town. The furniture which I bought just before the war with money I painstakingly gathered was all gone. Our clothes and shoes were confiscated by the occupying army. And that was the way with kitchen equipment and other things in the home. So, after the war we are starting anew. I am beginning alone because until now my husband has not been reported. I am alone with two children – a 5 year old and a three year old boy, also an elderly mother. So I must work hard all week and have the children help me.
“If you can imagine the situation you will know how grateful I am for this gift. It means for me the greatest means of livelihood. It has become a member of our family. I thank you once again dear friends most heartily for this precious gift and believe me that we will think of you the rest of our lives and be grateful. May you live there over the sea happily and may God bless you.”

Kosarova Frantiska: “The wounds of warfare are healing gradually for us, especially as we are so fortunate to have such generous friends.” Photo courtesy of Heifer International.

From Anna Dostalova in Stepankovice, April 14, 1946:
“The war was bad and brought much evil to us. It razed our buildings, killed livestock and nothing was left except our ravaged home and six hungry children. The youngest became ill and died. He was longing for milk at that time to which the children have been accustomed. So when the cow arrived there was much happiness. Five eager children jumped about me and the cow. When I brought the first milk they stood around with their little pots each one eager to taste the milk from America. It has a wonderful flavor. The cow is now well settled and feeds well. For your goodness, I thank you again!

A note from Family Kysuconova: “Grandmother, parents and 3 children are thanking most heartily for the generous gift of a fine cow given to them. This cow is their saviour from starvation.” Photo courtesy of Heifer International.

And lastly, from Frantisek Martinik of Poruba, undated:
“The help given me by this gift [of a cow] is immense. . . . The friendly and sacrificial attitude of the selfless Americans in help to the Silesian people is proving that there are still good people in the World despite of the hatred in Warfare and that Love didn’t die and never will in human hearts.
“This truth and by deeds proved Love is warming and strengthening our spirit and gives us courage to rebuild our homes and reconstruct our beloved but war torn country of Silesia.
“The Lords providence may reward your magnificent deeds, we shall never forget what you have done for us.”

Heifer International continues this great work. Giving Tuesday is coming up! Consider a gift to Heifer in gratitude for all we have been given.