Special Crew #3: Interracial crew works and studies together — Part II

What an amazing undertaking the interracial seagoing cowboy crew of July 4, 1946, was, at a time when Jim Crow laws ruled across the southern United States.

       It came about when applications of many Negro fellows were refused by UNRRA or they were shunted into an all-Negro crew. After successive protests from men both white and Negro and southern, UNNRA said if a southern organization, preferably a religious one, would recruit one interracial crew and that if they had good experiences, they would not segregate successive crews.Kaneda, Ben 025
       The Fellowship accepted responsibility and recruited 34 men from 21 different southern schools, six nationalities, and with the three major faiths represented. One Negro and one white skilled veterinarian worked with the crew. One Negro and one white minister went along to conduct the religious and educational program planned by the Fellowship for the trip.
       The practice of segregation stopped immediately in UNRRA.¹

So states an undated report of the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen regarding use of a $1200 grant from the Hazen Foundation for this and other projects during 1946.

In September 1945, when Martin Luther King, Jr., was a student at Morehouse College, his mentor, Morehouse President Benjamin E. Mays, was applying for the FSC’s Hazen Foundation grant. In the application, Dr. Mays wrote:

Kaneda, Ben 046       One of the three things the Fellowship of Southern Churchmen is interested in doing is to extend the area of Christian Fellowship across racial lines.
       . . . . There should be exchange of students in Negro and white colleges and visits from Negro colleges to white colleges and vica [sic] versa. Negro and white college students living in the same city or state of the south are further apart than are the students of Europe and Asia. They know practically nothing about each other. This gap should be bridged and a program can be worked out to this end.²

The Fellowship seagoing cowboy crew was a part of that program, as was a series of interracial work camps held in the South.

Rev. William G. Klein, Director of the Rural Project of Union Church in Berea, Kentucky, coordinated the recreation and group activities for the cowboy crew. In a letter reporting to FSC’s Secretary, Nelle Morton, following the trip, he wrote:

Kaneda, Ben 111       Personally the whole experience just from the inter-racial and inter-cultural viewpoints alone was a most valuable experience. Our ship crew was also inter-racial (CIO-BNMU) so that we found a most congenial atmosphere for complete fellowship, and then I think that the work experience together was one of the most if not the most valuable means of achieving a unity of spirit and purpose. The discussions, somewhat curtailed because of the rough weather on the way back, would not have had the value they had, if we had not had the Kaneda, Ben 077previous work experience together….Luther Neal, a Methodist minister-student from Augusta, Georgia…felt that this fellowship trip removed almost entirely a consciousness of race, and because of this he deprecated tendencies among Minority groups, including his own, to retaliate against discrimination with a reverse kind of ‘Jim Crow’ and exclusiveness. The group, in sympathy with this viewpoint, were highly in favor of mixed faculties at Negro as well as at non-Negro institutions.³

Kaneda, Ben 125Reflecting on this interracial crew experience of 1946 and the current racial and cultural tensions in our country makes me wish for more interracial, intercultural, and interfaith opportunities like this livestock trip for our citizens, young and old alike, where people can work side by side to lessen the gap that continues to divide us.

All photos are from the scrapbook of Ben Kaneda, the “token” Oriental on the trip, as he says, recruited from the only northern college represented, Temple University in Philadelphia. Through the help of a Quaker, he enrolled at Temple straight out of a Japanese-American internment camp where he and his family were forced to sit out the war in rural Arkansas.

1,2,3 — All quotes are from materials found at the Wilson Special Collections Library at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in Collection #03479: Fellowship of Southern Churchmen Records, 1937-1986.

 

Seagoing cowboy conversations with returning World War II soldiers

Here is the report from “Relief for Greece” in which Donald Lefever writes about his interchanges with the soldiers on the S. S. Virginian:

Our Contacts with Soldiers on the Return Trip

At Naples 140 soldiers came aboard the Virginian for transportation home. The great majority of these men had been in the service for three or more years and all of them had enough points to be discharged when they arrived in the States. Practically all had seen action in the most severe fighting in Italy and Africa. We had many opportunities to talk with these soldiers since neither they nor our group had any work to do.

When conversing with a soldier any length of time I frequently asked him some or all of the following questions: Do you favor peacetime conscription? What is your attitude toward the race question? What was our nation fighting for?

The answer to the first question was almost unanimous. Of the men I talked to five out of six were against peacetime conscription. They believed that the higher officers and officials of the army would favor the step in order to insure themselves a well paying position in peacetime. Most of the soldiers felt that conscription in peacetime would be a violation of our democracy.

The answer to the race question presented mor [sic] varied opinions. First, let me state that perhaps one-fourth of the soldiers on board were Negroes who, incidently, seemed to get along quite well with the rest of the soldiers. The soldiers all had their living and eating quarters together which is not the way things are usually done in the U. S. Army. We found that the army had done very little to rid the white soldiers of their ideas of white supremacy. Some admitted that the Negro should be treated better but most thought the Negro was in some way inferior to the average white man. The attitude of the Negro soldiers toward the problem seemed to be more rational. One young man from New York said, “We expect no gifts, all we want is equal rights; the right to compete on an equal basis.” Another married man from Ohio said it was his opinion that a Christian nation should accept all races as equal, whatever their color or heritage. “It is pretty disgusting and it lowers your self-respect to be excluded from a theatre or a concert hall just because your skin happens to be brown,” were the words of a young man from Arizona. These Negroes felt that if they were good enough to risk their lives for the country the least the government could do for them was to insure them of equal rights and opportunities.

When asked what the nation was fighting for most of the soldiers would reply that it was fighting for the survival of democracy. When asked what they themselves were fighting for they weren’t so sure. Many said they fought because they were made to fight. Others fought because it was either their skins or the other fellows; they preferred that it be the other fellows. Very few fellows said they fought because they hated the Germans. In fact some said they had nothing against the Germans. Many admitted that the German atrocities did not far surpass the American atrocities. One fellow said, “There were good and bad on both sides and our side did plenty that the people will never hear about back in the States. Another young man from the South remarked that it was funny that, “if we didn’t fight they would put us in prison or shoot us and the same thing would happen to the Germans if they didn’t fight. We both are fighting someone else’s war and we both are fighting for the same ideal of freedom.” One of the soldiers told a member of our group that he didn’t think a real Christian could fight. Another young married fellow with a child he had never seen said to a small group of us, “We fight, we obey commands and we aren’t supposed to think. In twenty years my little boy will be fighting the next war and he won’t know why.”

What a closing statement! I wonder if his little boy ended up fighting in Vietnam.